Top 5 web Browsers

1.Google chrome

 

 

Google Chrome (commonly known simply as Chrome) is a fr

eeware web browser developed by Google LLC.[13] It was first released on September 2, 2008, for Microsoft Windows, and was later ported to LinuxmacOSiOS and Android. Google Chrome is also the main component of Chrome OS, where it serves as a platform for running web apps.

Google releases the majority of Chrome’s source code as the Chromium open-source project;[14][15] however, Chrome itself is proprietary software.[16][13] One component that is not open-source is the built-in Adobe Flash Player (that Chrome has disabled by default since September 2016[17]). Chrome used the WebKit layout engine until version 27. As of version 28, all Chrome ports except the iOS port use Blink, a fork of the WebKit engine.[18][19][20]

As of 2018, StatCounter estimates that Google Chrome has a 66% worldwide usage share of web browsers as a desktop browser.[21] It also has 56% market share across all platforms combined,[22] because it has over 50% share on smartphones; and thus Chrome is the most used browser in virtually all countries (most exceptions in Africa).[23] Its success has led to Google expanding the “Chrome” brand name on various other products such as Chrome OS, Chromeca

stChromebookChromebitChromebox and Chromebase.

2.Safari

Until 1997, Apple Macintosh computers were shipped with the Netscape Navigator and Cyberdog web browsers only. Internet Explorer for Mac was later included as the default web browser for Mac OS 8.1 and onwards,[5] as part of a five-year agreement between Apple and Microsoft. During that time, Microsoft released three major versions of Internet Explorer for Mac that were bundled with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9, though Apple continued to include Netscape Navigator as an alternative. Microsoft ultimately released a Mac OS X edition of Internet Explorer for Mac, which was included as the default browser in all Mac OS X releases from Mac OS X DP4[6] up to and including Mac OS X v10.2.[7]

On January 7, 2003, at Macworld San Francisco, Steve Jobs announced that Apple had developed their own web browser, called Safari. It was based on Apple’s internal fork of the KHTML rendering engine, called WebKit.[8] Apple released the first beta version for OS X that day. A number of official and unofficial beta versions followed, until version 1.0 was released on June 23, 2003.[9] Initially only available as a separate download for Mac OS X v10.2, it was included with the Mac OS X v10.3 release on October 24, 2003 as the default browser, with Internet Explorer for Mac included only as an alternative browser. 1.0.3, released on August 13, 2004 was the last version to support Mac OS X v10.2, while 1.3.2, released on January 12, 2006 was the last version to support Mac OS X v10.3. However, 10.3 received security updates through 2007.

In April 2005, Dave Hyatt, one of the Safari developers at Apple, documented his study by fixing specific bugs in Safari, thereby enabling it to pass the Acid2 test developed by the Web Standards Project. On April 27, 2005, he announced that his development version of Safari now passed the test, making it the first web browser to do so.[10]

Safari 2.0 was released on April 29, 2005, as the only web browser included with Mac OS X v10.4. This version was touted by Apple as possessing a 1.8x speed boost over version 1.2.4, but did not yet include the Acid2 bug fixes. The necessary changes were initially unavailable to end-users unless they downloaded and compiled the WebKit source code themselves or ran one of the nightly automated builds available at OpenDarwin.org.[11] Apple eventually released version 2.0.2 of Safari, which included the modifications required to pass Acid2, on October 31, 2005.

In June 2005, after some criticism from KHTML developers over lack of access to change logs, Apple moved the development source code and bug tracking of WebCore and JavaScriptCore to OpenDarwin.org. WebKit itself was also released as open source. The source code for non-renderer aspects of the browser, such as its GUI elements, remains proprietary.

The final stable version of Safari 2, Safari 2.0.4, was released on January 10, 2006 for Mac OS X. It was only available as part of Mac OS X Update 10.4.4. This version addresses layout and CPU usage issues, among others.[12] Safari 2.0.4 was the last version to be released exclusively on Mac OS X until version 6 in 2012.

On January 9, 2007, at Macworld SF, Jobs announced Apple’s iPhone, which would use a mobile version of the Safari browser.[13]

On June 11, 2007, at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, Jobs announced Safari 3 for Mac OS X v10.5, Windows XP, and Windows Vista. During the announcement, he ran a benchmark based on the iBench browser test suite comparing the most popular Windows browsers,[14] hence claiming that Safari was the fastest browser. Later third-party tests of HTTP load times would support Apple’s claim that Safari 3 was indeed the fastest browser on the Windows platform in terms of initial data loading over the Internet, though it was found to be only negligibly faster than Internet Explorer 7 and Mozilla Firefox when loading static content from local cache.[15]

The initial Safari 3 beta version for Windows, released on the same day as its announcement at WWDC 2007, had several known bugs[16] and a zero day exploit that allowed remote execution.[17] The addressed bugs were then corrected by Apple three days later on June 14, 2007, in version 3.0.1 for Windows. On June 22, 2007, Apple released Safari 3.0.2 to address some bugs, performance issues and other security issues. Safari 3.0.2 for Windows handles some fonts that are missing in the browser but already installed on Windows computers, such as Tahoma, Trebuchet MS, and others.

The iPhone was formally released on June 29, 2007. It included a version of Safari based on the same WebKit rendering engine as the desktop version, but with a modified feature set better suited for a mobile device. The version number of Safari as reported in its user agent string is 3.0,[18] in line with the contemporary desktop versions of Safari.

The first stable, non-beta release of Safari for Windows, Safari 3.1, was offered as a free download on March 18, 2008. In June 2008, Apple released version 3.1.2,[19][20]addressing a security vulnerability in the Windows version where visiting a malicious web site could force a download of executable files and execute them on the user’s desktop.[21]

Safari 3.2, released on November 13, 2008, introduced anti-phishing features using Google Safe Browsing and Extended Validation Certificate support. The final version of Safari 3 is 3.2.3, released on May 12, 2009.

On June 2, 2008, the WebKit development team announced SquirrelFish,[22] a new JavaScript engine that vastly improves Safari’s speed at interpreting scripts.[23] The engine is one of the new features in Safari 4, released to developers on June 11, 2008. The new JavaScript engine quickly evolved into SquirrelFish Extreme, featuring even further improved performance over SquirrelFish,[24] and was eventually marketed as Nitro. A public beta of Safari 4 was released on February 24, 2009, with new features such as the Top Sites tool (similar to Opera‘s Speed Dial feature), which displays the user’s most visited sites on a 3D wall.[25] Cover Flow, a feature of Mac OS X and iTunes, was also implemented in Safari. In the public beta versions, tabs were placed in the title bar of the window, similar to Google Chrome. The tab bar was moved back to its original location, below the URL bar, in the final release.[26] The Windows version adopted a native Windows theme, rather than the previously employed Mac OS X-style interface. Also Apple removed the blue progress bar located in the address bar (later reinstated in Safari 5). Safari 4.0.1 was released for Mac on June 17, 2009 and fixed problems with Faces in iPhoto ’09. Safari 4 in Mac OS X v10.6 “Snow Leopard” has 64-bit support, which can make JavaScript loading up to 50% faster. It also has built-in crash resistance unique to Snow Leopard; crash resistance will keep the browser intact if a plug-in like Flash player crashes, such that the other tabs or windows will be unaffected.[27] Safari 4.0.4, released on November 11, 2009 for both OS X and Windows, further improves JavaScript performance.[28]

Safari was one of the twelve browsers offered to EU users of Microsoft Windows in 2010. It was one of the five browsers displayed on the first page of browser choices along with Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and Opera.[29][30]

Until 1997, Apple Macintosh computers were shipped with the Netscape Navigator and Cyberdog web browsers only. Internet Explorer for Mac was later included as the default web browser for Mac OS 8.1 and onwards,[5] as part of a five-year agreement between Apple and Microsoft. During that time, Microsoft released three major versions of Internet Explorer for Mac that were bundled with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9, though Apple continued to include Netscape Navigator as an alternative. Microsoft ultimately released a Mac OS X edition of Internet Explorer for Mac, which was included as the default browser in all Mac OS X releases from Mac OS X DP4[6] up to and including Mac OS X v10.2.[7]

On January 7, 2003, at Macworld San Francisco, Steve Jobs announced that Apple had developed their own web browser, called Safari. It was based on Apple’s internal fork of the KHTML rendering engine, called WebKit.[8] Apple released the first beta version for OS X that day. A number of official and unofficial beta versions followed, until version 1.0 was released on June 23, 2003.[9] Initially only available as a separate download for Mac OS X v10.2, it was included with the Mac OS X v10.3 release on October 24, 2003 as the default browser, with Internet Explorer for Mac included only as an alternative browser. 1.0.3, released on August 13, 2004 was the last version to support Mac OS X v10.2, while 1.3.2, released on January 12, 2006 was the last version to support Mac OS X v10.3. However, 10.3 received security updates through 2007.

In April 2005, Dave Hyatt, one of the Safari developers at Apple, documented his study by fixing specific bugs in Safari, thereby enabling it to pass the Acid2 test developed by the Web Standards Project. On April 27, 2005, he announced that his development version of Safari now passed the test, making it the first web browser to do so.[10]

Safari 2.0 was released on April 29, 2005, as the only web browser included with Mac OS X v10.4. This version was touted by Apple as possessing a 1.8x speed boost over version 1.2.4, but did not yet include the Acid2 bug fixes. The necessary changes were initially unavailable to end-users unless they downloaded and compiled the WebKit source code themselves or ran one of the nightly automated builds available at OpenDarwin.org.[11] Apple eventually released version 2.0.2 of Safari, which included the modifications required to pass Acid2, on October 31, 2005.

In June 2005, after some criticism from KHTML developers over lack of access to change logs, Apple moved the development source code and bug tracking of WebCore and JavaScriptCore to OpenDarwin.org. WebKit itself was also released as open source. The source code for non-renderer aspects of the browser, such as its GUI elements, remains proprietary.

The final stable version of Safari 2, Safari 2.0.4, was released on January 10, 2006 for Mac OS X. It was only available as part of Mac OS X Update 10.4.4. This version addresses layout and CPU usage issues, among others.[12] Safari 2.0.4 was the last version to be released exclusively on Mac OS X until version 6 in 2012.

On January 9, 2007, at Macworld SF, Jobs announced Apple’s iPhone, which would use a mobile version of the Safari browser.[13]

On June 11, 2007, at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, Jobs announced Safari 3 for Mac OS X v10.5, Windows XP, and Windows Vista. During the announcement, he ran a benchmark based on the iBench browser test suite comparing the most popular Windows browsers,[14] hence claiming that Safari was the fastest browser. Later third-party tests of HTTP load times would support Apple’s claim that Safari 3 was indeed the fastest browser on the Windows platform in terms of initial data loading over the Internet, though it was found to be only negligibly faster than Internet Explorer 7 and Mozilla Firefox when loading static content from local cache.[15]

The initial Safari 3 beta version for Windows, released on the same day as its announcement at WWDC 2007, had several known bugs[16] and a zero day exploit that allowed remote execution.[17] The addressed bugs were then corrected by Apple three days later on June 14, 2007, in version 3.0.1 for Windows. On June 22, 2007, Apple released Safari 3.0.2 to address some bugs, performance issues and other security issues. Safari 3.0.2 for Windows handles some fonts that are missing in the browser but already installed on Windows computers, such as Tahoma, Trebuchet MS, and others.

The iPhone was formally released on June 29, 2007. It included a version of Safari based on the same WebKit rendering engine as the desktop version, but with a modified feature set better suited for a mobile device. The version number of Safari as reported in its user agent string is 3.0,[18] in line with the contemporary desktop versions of Safari.

The first stable, non-beta release of Safari for Windows, Safari 3.1, was offered as a free download on March 18, 2008. In June 2008, Apple released version 3.1.2,[19][20]addressing a security vulnerability in the Windows version where visiting a malicious web site could force a download of executable files and execute them on the user’s desktop.[21]

Safari 3.2, released on November 13, 2008, introduced anti-phishing features using Google Safe Browsing and Extended Validation Certificate support. The final version of Safari 3 is 3.2.3, released on May 12, 2009.

On June 2, 2008, the WebKit development team announced SquirrelFish,[22] a new JavaScript engine that vastly improves Safari’s speed at interpreting scripts.[23] The engine is one of the new features in Safari 4, released to developers on June 11, 2008. The new JavaScript engine quickly evolved into SquirrelFish Extreme, featuring even further improved performance over SquirrelFish,[24] and was eventually marketed as Nitro. A public beta of Safari 4 was released on February 24, 2009, with new features such as the Top Sites tool (similar to Opera‘s Speed Dial feature), which displays the user’s most visited sites on a 3D wall.[25] Cover Flow, a feature of Mac OS X and iTunes, was also implemented in Safari. In the public beta versions, tabs were placed in the title bar of the window, similar to Google Chrome. The tab bar was moved back to its original location, below the URL bar, in the final release.[26] The Windows version adopted a native Windows theme, rather than the previously employed Mac OS X-style interface. Also Apple removed the blue progress bar located in the address bar (later reinstated in Safari 5). Safari 4.0.1 was released for Mac on June 17, 2009 and fixed problems with Faces in iPhoto ’09. Safari 4 in Mac OS X v10.6 “Snow Leopard” has 64-bit support, which can make JavaScript loading up to 50% faster. It also has built-in crash resistance unique to Snow Leopard; crash resistance will keep the browser intact if a plug-in like Flash player crashes, such that the other tabs or windows will be unaffected.[27] Safari 4.0.4, released on November 11, 2009 for both OS X and Windows, further improves JavaScript performance.[28]

Safari was one of the twelve browsers offered to EU users of Microsoft Windows in 2010. It was one of the five browsers displayed on the first page of browser choices along with Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and Opera.[29][30]

3Mozilla Firefox

Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source[18] web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation. Firefox is available for WindowsmacOSLinux, and BSD[8][9] operating systems. Its sibling, Firefox for Android, is available for Android. Firefox uses the Geckolayout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards.[19] In 2016, Firefox began incorporating new technology under the code name Quantum to promote parallelism and a more intuitive user interface.[20]An additional version, Firefox for iOS, was released on November 12, 2015, due to platform restrictions, it uses the WebKit layout engine instead of Gecko, as with all other iOS web browsers.

Firefox was created in 2002 under the codename “Phoenix” by the Mozillacommunity members who desired a standalone browser, rather than the Mozilla Application Suitebundle. During its betaphase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed, security, and add-ons compared to Microsoft‘s then-dominant Internet Explorer 6. Firefox was released on November 9, 2004,[21] and challenged Internet Explorer‘s dominance with 60 million downloads within nine months.[22] Firefox is the spiritual successor of Netscape Navigator, as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL.[23]

Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32% at the end of 2009,[24] temporarily making version 3.5 the world’s most popular browser.[25][26] Usage then declined in competition with Google Chrome.[24]As of March 2018, Firefox has 11.6% usage share as a “desktop” browser, according to StatCounter, making it the second most popular such web browser;[27][28][29][30] usage across all platforms is lower at 5.44% (and then 4th most popular overall). Firefox is still the most popular desktop browser in Cuba (even most popular overall at 62.77%[31]) and Eritrea with 78.3%[32] and 91%[33][34] of the market share, respectively. According to Mozilla, as of December 2014, there were half a billion Firefox users around the world.[35]

4.opera



is a web browserfor WindowsmacOS, and Linux operating systemsdeveloped by Norwegian company Opera Software AS. It uses the Blink layout engine. An earlier version using the Presto layout engine is still available and runs on FreeBSD systems.

Opera was conceived at Telenor as a research project in 1994 and was bought by Opera Software in 1995. Initially a commercial web browser, Opera became freeware in 2005. Before 2013, Opera used the Presto layout engine. The Presto versions of Opera received 13 different awards. In 2013, Opera changed its layout engine to Blink, the layout engine of its competitor Google Chrome. These new versions were criticized for lacking popular user interface elements and for the layout engine change.

In 2016, Opera Software AS was sold to a Chinese consortium. The parent company, the similarly named Opera Software ASA, changed its name to

5.Internet explorer

nternet Explorer[a](formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer[b] and Windows Internet Explorer,[c] commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995. It was first released as part of the add-on package Plus! for Windows 95 that year. Later versions were available as free downloads, or in service packs, and included in the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) service releases of Windows 95 and later versions of Windows. The browser is discontinued, but still maintained.[2]

Internet Explorer was one of the most widely used web browsers, attaining a peak of about 95% usage share by 2003.[5] This came after Microsoft used bundling to win the first browser war against Netscape, which was the dominant browser in the 1990s. Its usage share has since declined with the launch of Firefox (2004) and Google Chrome(2008), and with the growing popularity of operating systems such as Android and iOS that do not run Internet Explorer. Estimates for Internet Explorer’s market share are about 3.04% across all platforms or by StatCounter’s numbers ranked 6th, while on desktop, the only platform it’s ever had significant share (i.e. excluding mobile, and not counting Xbox) it’s ranked 3rd at 6.97%,[6] just after Firefox (others[7] place IE 2nd with 10.86% just ahead of), as of August 2018 (browser market share is notoriously difficult to calculate). Microsoft spent over US$100 million per year on Internet Explorer in the late 1990s,[8] with over 1,000 people working on it by 1999.[9][10]

Versions of Internet Explorer for other operating systems have also been produced, including an Xbox 360 version called Internet Explorer for Xbox and for platforms Microsoft no longer supports: Internet Explorer for Mac and Internet Explorer for UNIX (Solaris and HP-UX), and an embedded OEM version called Pocket Internet Explorer, later rebranded Internet Explorer Mobile made for Windows PhoneWindows CE, and previously, based on Internet Explorer 7 for Windows Mobile.

On March 17, 2015, Microsoft announced that Microsoft Edge would replace Internet Explorer as the default browser on its Windows 10 devices. This effectively makes Internet Explorer 11 the last release (however IE 10 and 9 also get security updates as of 2018).[11] Internet Explorer, however, remains on Windows 10 primarily for enterprise purposes.[12] Since January 12, 2016, only Internet Explorer 11 has been supported.[13][14] Support varies based on the operating system’s technical capabilities and its support lifecycle.[15]

The browser has been scrutinized throughout its development for use of third-party technology (such as the source code of Spyglass Mosaic, used without royalty in early versions) and security and privacy vulnerabilities, and the United States and the European Union have alleged that integration of Internet Explorer with Windows has been to the detriment of fair browser competition.[16]

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