Cleopatra was born in69B.C and committed suicide in the year 30B.C .Cleopatra belonged to the Ptolemy dynasty of Egypt and perhaps was one of the most powerful pharaohs of her time. She was not shy about using her power and always claimed that she was a Goddess Isis herself. Though she ruled Egypt she belonged to Greece as her family migrated many years earlier to Greece. They were called Macedonian Greeks. Cleopatra was the only queen who learnt to read and write in Egyptian and for the first time during her rule Egyptian was used as an official language. In addition to learning the language she embraced the ancient culture and their gods. Cleopatra spoke nine languages and had an irresistible charm that attracted men towards her. Though she was no classic beauty her charm was iconic. Cleopatra was an intellectual and so she could work on equal terms with men and her mastery over so many languages and subjects gave her the upper hand. She was extremely ambitious and co ruled with her father for four years when she got valuable experience. When her father died in order to hold on to the throne she married her brother but soon made sure he was forgotten by the people. Her first step was to erase his images from all the coins. Her initial years were a struggle as there was drought and famine because of the failure of Nile to flood. Her error in judgment of taking sides cost her throne but soon through manipulation she won it back. Her brother in the meanwhile found a new ally in Julius Ceaser but the intelligent Cleopatra managed to fascinate the Roman emperor and he remained with her till the very end. Cleopatra is alleged to have killed both her brothers and sisters who were eying the throne. She is said to have introduced the leap year and day to Ceaser and he implemented it in the Roman calendar. Cleopatra was living with Ceaser when he was murdered and had to make a hasty escape. Though people spoke behind her back the women imitated everything she did and she became a style icon for women of those days . After Ceaser she impressed Marc Antony whom she married in Egyptian style. Soon Octavius who called Marc Antony a traitor waged war against them. Though they knew it was lost cause both fought commanding thir own fleet. Cleopatra when she realized that all was over for her consumed snake poison and killed herself.
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Another egypt history (Ptolemy dynasty)
The Ptolemaic dynasty (/ˌtɒlɪˈmeɪɪk/; Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids (/ˈlædʒɪdz/) or Lagidae (/ˈlædʒɪdi/; Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I’s father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 to 30 BC. They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt.
Ptolemy, one of the seven somatophylakes (bodyguards) of Macedon who served as Alexander the Great‘s generals and deputies, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander’s death in 323 BC. In 305 BC, he declared himself Ptolemy I, later known as Sōter “Saviour”. The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. Ptolemy’s family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BC.
All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ptolemaic queens regnant, some of whom were married to their brothers, were all called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Her apparent suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt.
Like the earlier dynasties of ancient Egypt, the Ptolemaic dynasty practiced inbreeding including sibling marriage. This did not start in earnest until nearly a century into the dynasty’s history. Ptolemy I was not closely related to any of his wives, and the first Ptolemaic ruler born from incest wasn’t until Ptolemy V, born 210 BC. (Ptolemy II was married to his sister, but the marriage did not produce any children).[7
Ptolemaic rulers and consorts
Dates in brackets represent the regnal dates of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. They frequently ruled jointly with their wives, who were often also their sisters. Several queens exercised regal authority. Of these, one of the last and most famous was Cleopatra (“Cleopatra VII Philopator”, 51–30 BC), with her two brothers and her son serving as successive nominal co-rulers. Several systems exist for numbering the later rulers; the one used here is the one most widely employed by modern scholars.
- Ptolemy I Soter (303–282 BC) married first Thaïs, then Artakama, then Eurydice, and finally Berenice I
- Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285–246 BC) married Arsinoe I, then Arsinoe II; ruled jointly with Ptolemy Epigonos (267–259 BC)
- Ptolemy III Euergetes (246–221 BC) married Berenice II
- Ptolemy IV Philopator (221–203 BC) married Arsinoe III
- Ptolemy V Epiphanes (203–181 BC) married Cleopatra I Syra
- Ptolemy VI Philometor (181–164 BC, 163–145 BC) married Cleopatra II, briefly ruled jointly with Ptolemy Eupator in 152 BC
- Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator (never reigned)
- Ptolemy VIII Physcon (170–163 BC, 145–116 BC) married Cleopatra II, then Cleopatra III; temporarily expelled from Alexandria by Cleopatra II from 131-127 BC, then reconciled with her in 124 BC.
- Cleopatra II Philometora Soteira (131–127 BC), in opposition to Ptolemy VIII Physcon
- Cleopatra III Philometor Soteira Dikaiosyne Nikephoros (Kokke) (116–101 BC) ruled jointly with Ptolemy IX Lathyros (116–107 BC) and Ptolemy X Alexander I (107–101 BC)
- Ptolemy IX Lathyros (116–107 BC, 88–81 BC as Soter II) married Cleopatra IV, then Cleopatra Selene; ruled jointly with Cleopatra III in his first reign
- Ptolemy X Alexander I (107–88 BC) married Cleopatra Selene, then Berenice III; ruled jointly with Cleopatra III till 101 BC
- Berenice III Philopator (81–80 BC)
- Ptolemy XI Alexander II (80 BC) married and ruled jointly with Berenice III before murdering her; ruled alone for 19 days after that.
- Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) (80–58 BC, 55–51 BC) married Cleopatra V Tryphaena
- Cleopatra V Tryphaena (58–57 BC) ruled jointly with Berenice IV Epiphaneia (58–55 BC) and Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (58 BC)
- Cleopatra (“Cleopatra VII Philopator”, 51–30 BC) ruled jointly with Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (51–47 BC), Ptolemy XIV (47–44 BC) and Ptolemy XV Caesarion (44–30 BC).
- Arsinoe IV (48–47 BC), in opposition to Cleopatra